GlaxoSmithKline plc, commonly referred to as GSK, is a British multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London. The company was founded in 2000 through the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham, two of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world at the time. GSK operates in over 150 countries and has a portfolio of pharmaceutical, vaccines, and consumer healthcare products.
The company's pharmaceutical segment focuses on the research, development, and manufacture of drugs for a range of therapeutic areas including respiratory, oncology, immunology, and HIV. GSK's vaccine portfolio includes preventative vaccines for diseases such as meningitis, influenza, and shingles, as well as treatments for cancer and HIV. The company also offers a range of consumer healthcare products such as toothpaste, pain relief medication, and nutritional supplements.
GSK went public in December 2000, following the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham. The company's shares are listed on the London Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. In 2015, GSK completed a major asset swap with Novartis, acquiring the Swiss company's vaccines business and divesting its oncology business.
In recent years, GSK has faced challenges including declining revenue in its respiratory portfolio, increased competition from generic drugs, and a lack of new product launches. The company has responded with a restructuring plan aimed at simplifying its business operations and focusing on its key areas of strength. As part of this plan, GSK announced in 2021 that it would spin off its consumer healthcare business into a separate company and combine its pharmaceutical and vaccines business with Pfizer's to form a new joint venture company.